The Practical Test of Articulation and Phonology (PTAP) is designed to be a criterion referenced problem analysis tool that provides a systematic means of assessing an individual's speech production skills. The test is composed of 36 color, real-life pictures of basic vocabulary words which contain 23 phonemes and 7 phonological processes. The PTAP helps the clinician make a differential diagnosis between articulation delay, phonological disorder, or a combination of the two for children ages three and above. Scores are not reported as standard scores as this assessment has not yet been through the normative process. The total number of errors can be compared to the total possible number of phonemes or processes.