The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) is a standardized measure of three types of phonological processing: phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid naming. Phonological awareness refers to an individual’s awareness of and access to the sound structure of oral language. Phonological memory refers to coding information phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory. Rapid naming requires efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory. Analysis of ’s responses indicated .